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  1. *************[Note: Since photobucket decided to nerf everyone's accounts, a lot of the pictures in this thread are gone. I intend to fix all of the posts but it will take quite a while. Photos start on page 29 currently. In the meantime all of the photos are available on Facebook by searching #projectflexington and many are on Instagram under the same hashtag. Thanks for looking and please don't be afraid to comment! ]************* So figure it is time to start a build log for my 6th order wall. Been working on it for a few weeks now. I'll start by posting the equipment I'm using for the build. Electrical: Batteries: 2 nsb170fts and 2 stinger group 31s: 3 banks of super caps: 2 singer 320amp alternators (these came with the truck, I'm currently in the process of redoing the bracket to strengthen it and add a tensioner but I'll elaborate later): 4+ spools of skyhigh 1/0, knukonceptz 4/0 ofc for alternators (will post pictures later) Terminals, marine grade ring terminals lugs, properly crimped with double wall adhesive lined heat shrink: Subs are 2 sundown x15s rev 1(will be rebuilding for level 6 18s at a later date): Sub Amp, kicker warhorse: Head unit and tweeters, Sony dsx-s210x and 4x Earthquake Screamers, 1.5" 150wrms per pair silk Dome tweeters with replaceable voice coils: Mid bass, 4x dayton audio 10" pa woofers, 300rms each: Mids are tbd, probably 2 8" midrange speakers. Lots of Baltic birch: If you enjoy, please comment!
  2. If you got capacitors for your system, post pics of your setup and specs and total watts. I'm looking to do a capacitor setup for a system of 4,000w total peak.
  3. So, I wanted to make a thread like this for awhile, but I never really used this account and I've been lurking for awhile, so now I've decided to do it. The point of this thread is to explain the capacitors that amplifiers use, and how they can majorly effect the amplifiers performance. So we're gonna start off with the basics: What is a capacitor, and what does it do? Capacitors are simple little devices, they're like batteries, only they can release their charge inside of a second at any moments notice, and regain that charge just as fast. The most common type that is used in amplifiers are called Electrolytic Capacitors. They use high purity aluminum inside of them attached to a negative and positive (called a Cathode and Anode). However, there are layers of aluminum wrapped into a roll, with paper separating them. This paper is impregnated with an electrolyte, this is crucial to a capacitor. The electrolyte makes or breaks the capacitor, if it's bad quality or the cap in general is bad quality, the electrolyte will usually fail. This will cause it to generate a large amount of hydrogen gas inside of the capacitor. There is a vent on top of the capacitor that will allow this to release. However, there is a lot more than hydrogen in the smoke that comes out, breathing it in is EXTREMELY toxic. Do NOT attempt to explode a capacitor for fun, the safety vents on the top do not always work, the failure can cause them to explode and take off like a bottle rocket, or send shrapnel everywhere like a hand grenade (literally). This can severely injure you, it's happened to me, don't let it happen to you. Everyone here with a small system and a single battery with a stock alt probably uses a cap to stop their lights from dimming. As for the caps inside of the amplifier itself, they're usually not big enough to do this, however, new technologies are going to make this very possible, very soon. I'll explain more of this later. So what are the caps for? They're there to provide a quick burst of electricity as the amplifier needs it. You've all probably seen the amplifiers on the dyno, when they're in dynamic mode, they usually put out substantially more then when on certified. This is because of those capacitors. When they are charged, they provide a large burst of electricity at the optimal voltage for the amplifier to run at internally for a burst. This is why they perform much better this way. Let's explain this a little more. Let's say the amplifier is going to have two things happen to it: It is rated for 1000W RMS @ 1ohm, it is then put to a 1 ohm load and it will be tested with a 40hz burst tone every 3 seconds, and then a constant 40hz tone. You put the amplifier on a power supply bank with the batteries charged to 14.2V, and the amplifier is running happily. The capacitors inside charge and it's ready to go. First test: You put the 40hz tone through the amplifier and it makes 1028 watts, right at it's rating and you're happy with that. However, you then put a 40hz burst tone to it and you get a whopping 1482 watts out of it, what? This is the peak wattage of the amplifier, if you'd read the manual, you'd see that it says that it's peak is 1500W. A little more than your shitty Pyle sub can handle. This is a perfect example of the capacitors doing their job in the amplifier, they provided a quick burst of electricity in large volume for a a short period of time. However, you see this amazing deal on an amplifier from Power Akoustic, 300$ for 10000W!? You think this is insane and buy the amp right away from a shady eBay seller. You put it on the dyno, run the same tests, and are extremely disappointed. You only got 2500W at 0.5ohms certified, and 5000 dynamic, bummer! But why does the amplifier not put out it's rated power? There are a lot of factors here, one is it being only 300$. The others though are a possible combination of these things: Power supply of amplifier not being capable of a reliable supply for the amplifier, the capacitors being cheap and underrated for the job, or the output section being overrated. Commonly it's the caps inside of the amplifier being cheap, and used barely for what they're rated because the manufacturer knows they won't last otherwise. Take for example the Hifonics Brutus 1200.4X this amplifier suffers from this majorly. I have one, and I've examined it's power supply, and I can tell you right now they cheaped out in this part of the amp. The caps are all chinese cheap capacitors, rated 1000uF (uF = MicroFarad) at 35v. Now here's a shocker: overrating the capacitor does NOT increase it's life that much, and I'll explain more in a minute. For now, let's concentrate on something else: capacitor size. 1 farad(F) = roughly 1 million uF. So 1000uF is small, right? This depends on where it's used. If you take a capacitor that's rated 100v 1000uF and charge it fully. Then foolishly put your fingers across the terminals (do NOT EVER do this, EVER) you have just shoved a HUGE ammount of electricity through your body at 100v. You're gonna get hurt, really, really bad. I've done this and it hurts like hell, it feels like where the electricity was flowing through is on fire, I shorted a 200V 2200uF capacitor charged to 120V across my arms on accident. Needless to say I fell down screaming and not able to move my arms at all. I was lucky, I survived. My arms can never stay stable again, but I'm alive and that's what matters. Don't be an idiot with these things, I'm telling you this for your own safety. Now, back to sizing. 1000uF is quite small electrically speaking, it's a common size in most common household items, like laptop chargers, radios in cars and in the house, televisions, and now becoming more common: led light bulbs. However, for large applications like a 1200W amplifier, they don't have any business being in the power supply, unless it's for something small like a controller circuit. However, powering an amplifier of that size is absolutely something they're not meant for, so why did Hifonics use them? Because cheap caps cannot do near their rated voltages for long periods of time without failing. Lots of cheap caps are overrated as well, they just straight up can't even do their rated voltage. Why do manufacturers do this? Not even I know, good capacitors are usually only a few CENTS more in terms of price. I've imported things from China to sell on eBay, believe me when I say cheap caps aren't worth it. Common brands of shit caps include: Chang, Chenxing (if you ever get an amp with these caps in it, you've bought trash), Chong, GSC, G-Luxon, Ltec, Rukycon, Rulycon, Weicon, ZCKJ, Yihcon/ZHN, JWCO, Evercon, and so many others I can't even list. However, in this list are a few that the technicians here will know I didn't list, I'll talk about those in a moment. So when it comes to good caps like Nichicon, Nippon Chemi Con, Sanyo, Elna, and Matsushita/Panasonic, they will last forever running at their rated voltage. The brands above are known for having the electrolyte evaporate before the caps themselves fail. It's ridiculous how they usually don't even cost that much more, meanwhile they can make the life of the amplifier, now the quality of the cap has to do a lot with it's size, let me explain why. You get a cheap amplifier with cheap caps that are overrated so they don't fail. However they are smaller in capacitance because as the voltage increases, the physical size of the capacitor increases. This also goes for the capacitance rating of the capacitor. This cheap amplifier is rated for 1000W, but on the dynamic test you only get 750W, a little short of the rated 1000W. You take it to a technician and he sees that the power supply capacitors are too small for the amplifier to produce the power. He then replaces them with larger, quality capacitors. You then bring the amplifier back and dyno it again. What do you know, it's made 1050W! (Please note: it's never this easy of a fix to get an amplifier to do it's rated power, it's usually more of a mod than this.) This is just a basic example of the importance of capacitors. For those interested in what caps are good, check http://capacitorlist.com/ a small website set up for people to know what caps are good and bad. Okay, so now here's where things are gonna get technical, so buckle up there is absolutely no tl;dr for any of this. Remember, with cheap caps not lasting and them having to overrate them? I'm gonna explain why for those who wish to know why they fail and why having good caps makes a world of difference. If you were to compare a Rockford Fosgate amplifier to a Hifonics, what you'd find is appropriately sized capacitors for every application, and power supplies ready to rock and make the amplifier pump out some serious power. With Hifonics, you'll find the absolute minimum to get the rated power, but this does cut the cost of the amplifier. So the way this plays out is usually the bare minimum not being enough, the peak it'll put out is likely going to be RMS output, and not much better. So the simple reason for this is because the cheap caps are smaller because they need to have a higher voltage rating so they do not fail. However, with the good caps, they can be larger due to them being able to handle their rated voltage. A little while before, I explained that caps being overrated can also cause them to fail. This is true, and I'll explain why. With capacitors, electrolyte will age and eventually wear out, or dry up. If you have good caps, they will likely dry up before they fail, but there is one flaw to this. If you take a good capacitor, let's say a Nichicon rated for 35V 1000uF, and run the capacitor at 12v all it's life, it's not going to last. The electrolyte in the capacitor cannot run too far below the rated voltage, or it will fail prematurely from the electrolyte wearing out. To prevent this, on a standard system the manufacturer will likey use capacitors rated at 16V 3300uF. This leaves some space in between running max voltage all the time, while not deviating too far. This makes for a perfect match, it also allows a capacitor to have a larger capacitance. This means a larger burst of electricity can be given to the amplifier when it's needed. Now you have an amplifier that can do it's rated power with no problems. However, the amplifier with the cheap caps will either struggle or not be able to do it's rated power at all. One last thing for the technicians who I'm about to trigger the shit out of. *breathes in* CapXon and similar brands (like Su'Scon and Samxon) are NOT BAD BRANDS. There is so much evidence of this being false it's not even funny. I have Mackie powered PA speakers and powered mixers that are FULL of these things. By that I mean there are no other brands of cap inside of them except on the preamp circuits. All of the caps test good within spec and the amplifier operates with no problems. Why do these brands have a bad reputation? Manufacturers using these caps out of spec. These are the best caps China has to offer if I'm honest. However, manufacturers know this and they use them like they're japanese high quality capacitors. They use them for tasks they are not specified for, such as having a ripple current rating that's too low. A good quality cap would likely not be too badly effected by this. However, with CapXon, they're seen failing in amps and LG monitors and tvs all the time. Why? Ripple current being too high for them to handle, you can check on YouTube for videos of this being explained and proven. I've seen brands like Su' Scon, Samxon, and even Jamicon in places where they were mission critical, and they are fine due to the cicuits they were installed in being quite well designed. I see Samxon in Dell power supplies a lot, never have a problem with them there. I see CapXon in Mackie amplifiers all the time, never have a problem with them. I see Jamicon in Trane furnaces every day when I work cleaning furnaces and servicing them, I've seen these caps over 10 years old still operating just fine. In the end, what I'm saying is don't jump to conclusions all the time about certain caps, I've seen this kind of stereotyping a lot and there's a lot of proof against this. I see it every day. Last but not least, amplifiers being able to stop voltage dimming on their own. As you all may have seen or may not have seen, there are a new type of capacitor starting to hit the market: the super capacitor. EricBigDWiz uses Maxwell supercaps rated for 2500 FARADS. These are HUGE and can release an absolutely massive ammounts of electricity, but they are too big to big to fit into an amplifier, so what next? They make smaller ones, that's what's next, they keep getting these capacitors smaller and smaller. Now, you can get a 500F capacitor that is the size of a small cell phone battery bank (those cheap round ones you see everywhere). This means you can put many of them together to get them to work with the voltage of the amplifier. There's also a new feature these caps have: most of them have 3 pins on them, one of them is a controlled release of the charge. This means they can release the charge slower, allowing for longer peak amplifier outputs. If anyone knows the Rockford Fosgate T15K, this amp has around 180 400F capacitors in it. This is why it can put out so much wattage without even trying, if they put these capacitors in more amplifiers, we'd have many more amplifiers that were low cost that could put out peak power easier. That's it for tonight, It's 4am and I probably left out some stuff. If I did tell me in the replies and I'll edit more into it. Any things people want to add let me know, I'll add it to this. Have a nice night guys.
  4. Well, I decided to change my front stage sooner than I thought. Anything I have BNIB has been removed for purposes of pictures only!! Up for sale is: Pair of BNIB SoundQubed QP-MR6.5 Pro Audio Speakers $50 shipped Pair of BNIB SoundQubed QT-CD25 (component) soft dome tweeters $30 shipped Two pairs (4 in total) SoundQubed QP-MR6.5 Pro Audio Grilles $12 shipped for both pair, or $7/pair One pair of CDT Audio crossovers from the CL-S60A - CDT Audio Classic 6.5" 2-Way Component Speakers set. I have both woofers and tweeters as well (one woofer is blown, one tweeter has a torn lead that can be repaired with some solder and heat shrink). Only listing the crossovers, but if you want the woofers and/or tweets as well, let me know. Price for crossovers: $45 I also have two 1.0farad capacitors that were given to me back when I started out. One is a Rockford Fosgate 1.0f Punch Cap. Price: $50. The other is a Lightning Audio (also of Rockford Corp.) Strike Monitor, which is 1.0f with a fancy digital readout price: $50. Everything is OBO, so throw me a bone, worst I can say is no! if you want a package deal I'll create a deal-price for you. Thanks!! Shipping only in the lower 48 states of the great United States of America. Payments can be made via PayPal only, and I will only ship once payment has been completed.
  5. my stereo system is a bigger current draw than my alternator can supply, does any one know which make and model of alternator I need for 160 Amps In my 1996 nissan pulsar Lx N15? Because of my system drawing (at fuse rating max. current) 1800 Watts RMS ( 4 channel OAC160 600w RMS & mono BRX1200.1D 1200w RMS Optima yellow top D51R - 12v 38ah + regular lead acid batt. & boss(ashamed) 8 Farad capacitor) all powering 2 KICKER 6 1/2" coaxial 100w RMS + 2 6x9" VIBE AUDIO 120w RMS amd TWIN INFINITY KAPPA 10.9W 350w RMS 1400w peak *EACH* - Then @ 1 ohm between them and running at 1200w RMS from a Hifonics Amp
  6. Common misconceptions about Capacitors, and the math to back them up. The single BIGGEST misconception about audio. "The rule of thumb is to put in 1 Farad of capacitance for every 1,000 watts RMS of total system power... The larger the cap, the faster it gets ready for the amp's next big hit."~ Crutchfield.com Before I deconstruct this myth, lets cover the basics. What is a capacitor? Simply put, a capacitor is an electrical device that stores a voltage potential. It stores power in the same way that a cup holds water. In this analogy, Capacitor voltage = Cup water level and Capacitance = volume of container. For the capacitor to do anything, it requires a voltage drop. For water to be used, the water level in the cup must be lowered. The water (Volume) will flow from the point of highest elevation to the lowest. Current flows from the point of highest Voltage. Whatever has the highest voltage in an electrical system will supply the rest of the system. (Water flows downhill!) This means that it is IMPOSSIBLE for ANY NUMBER of batteries to be of ANY USE if your current draw does not exceed the limits of your alternator. The cars alternator will supply ALL the current/power at about 14.8v (The alternator has the highest voltage at this point) Voltage drops below 14.8v when the current draw is greater than the alternator output. How much this voltage drops is dependent upon the alternator and current draw. Voltage will continue to drop until it reaches 12.8volts. The cars battery/ies will supply all the necessary current below 12.8v (Here, the alternator voltage output drops to the level of the batteries, and the batteries will supply the current needed) If the current draw continues, the batteries will eventually be depleted, as indicated by a voltage below 11 volts. (the chemical reaction in the batteries is exhausted, and the batteries can no longer support the load) Voltage of 10.8v or lower indicates that you have completely drained all the reserve capacity of your battery. (Probably should turn it down now and let things recharge) Now that we have this understood (you took notes right?); Consider this scenario: Stock electrical. Aftermarket audio system where the amp draws more current than the alternator can supply. System drops voltage from 14.8 volts to 12.8v. After some time the voltage drops to 10.8v. MATH: E = (1/2)* C * V^2 Joules(Watt-seconds) = (1/2) * Capacitance (Farads) * Voltage^2 1 farad capacitor: E= (1/2) * 1 * 14.8^2 E = ~109.52 Joules of energy. This is how many Watt-Seconds the 1farad capacitor can supply from 14.8 volts down to 0 volts. to figure out how much power would be supplied to the system, we calculate the difference in stored power across our voltage drop. 1 Farad capacitor: 14.8v = ~109.52 Joules. <- Vehicle charging voltage. The ideal maximum voltage your car will see. 12.8v = ~81.92 Joules <- Battery voltage. The maximum voltage your batteries can supply. 10.8v = ~58.32 Joules <- Critical battery voltage. This low of a drop indicates depleted batteries. Now, we calculate the voltage drop and receive the amount of power the capacitor contributed to the system! (Drop from 14.8v -12.8 ) 27.6 watt-seconds. (Drop from 12.8v-10.8 ) 23.6 watt-seconds. (Drop from 14.8-10.8 ) 51.2 watt-seconds. This means that if you added a 1 farad capacitor to this car audio system, the cap would supply a whopping 27.6 WATTS for 1 second before the batteries became the current source. WOW! a 10 farad cap would supply 276 Watts.(meh..) a 100 farad cap would supply 2,760 watts.(that is a lot of power eh?) It seems like a 10 farad capacitor or greater might be a worthy investment after all? JUST WAIT. This power, Joules, Is a measure of watts/second. This means that over time the cap really flounders. that same 100 farad cap would only supply 1,380 watts for two seconds (not bad) 690 watts for 4 seconds... (eh) 345 watts for 8 seconds... (um) 172 watts for 16 seconds... (boo) and less than 80 watts for 30 seconds To really be effective with a capacitor, we need to get stupid ridiculous. a mammoth 1,000 farad capacitor would supply 27,600 watts... for one second. (Holy smokes!) that 1,000 farad cap would only supply 13,800 watts for two seconds (not bad) 6,900 watts for 4 seconds... 3,450 watts for 8 seconds... 1,725 watts for 16 seconds... Hopefully you see how incredibly useless a 1 farad capacitor would be in this situation? Now, back to the misconception, 1 farad for 1000 RMS... how much power does 1000watts (RMS) take? Heh, in an ideal world with 100% efficient amplifiers, 1000 watts would take exactly 1000watts of power. Based on our calculations, we would need approximately 37farads to supply this metaphorical amp for one single second... But wait a minute! Did someone say “What about the alternator?!?” yes, we must discus that! The alternator, as stated, supplies the power above 12.8volts. In most cars, the alternator produces somewhere around 100amps, give or take. (My 97 Camry has a 40/80 amp alternator) This seems like a lot, but it is needed to power the car itself, the lights, electronics, and engine. Budget that the car will take at least half of your alternators capacity, in my case ~40 amps. This leaves you with ~40 amps for aftermarket amplifiers, or (14.8*40 + 592 watts) so, I can easily deliver around 600 watts to my system, ANYTHING over this amount will cause my voltage to drop, eventually to 12.8v. The capacitor will help supply current to whatever is above the limit of the alternator. In my case, if I had for example a 700w amplifier, I would need to supply 100w from somewhere to keep my system above 12.8v. In this case a 10farad capacitor would work quite well! It would fill in the gap for 2.7 seconds. When playing music, this would fit perfectly. When we get into large systems, 1Kw, 2400rms, 4000w systems... a capacitor just isn’t feasible. Therefor I can say that the myth of 1f per 1kw is bullshit and false! ( can you imagine.. Steve Mead.. with stock alt,stock battery, and a 30farad cap? LOL!) Now, a departure into the opposite side, those arguing that “While using a cap much larger than recommended will not damage an audio system, it is not recommended because of the unnecessary strain it puts on the vehicles electrical system.” -SonicElectroinix The myth that capacitors add additional strain to your system. In theory, yes.. yes they do. But really.. look again at the math! It takes roughly the same power to charge a cap as it does to drain it, meaning that the electrical load for charging that 1 farad capacitor from 12.8 volts to 14.8 takes a whopping 27.6 WATTS for 1 second WOW! a 10 farad cap would take 276 Watts.( 276w/14.8v =~ 20 amps) We can clearly see that the capacitor doesn’t take much to charge, meaning that if your system is close to the alternators capabilities (As in the 700rms system example) that a 10farad capacitor wouldn’t hinder the system much! (It would charge back up in between peak current draw, IE with the beat of the music) To take this further, it becomes apparent that if you have a system with a large cap bank and small charging system, say my setup with 40 amps and 1000 farads, it would take me (27,600/14.8 = 1,864 amps. 1864/40 = ~46 seconds) If I drained my cap to battery voltage, and then shut off my amps completely, it would take 46 seconds to charge my capacitors. You can see that a large cap can be harmful! In conclusion, a capacitor can be a wonderful way to extract additional performance out of a system that is drawing slightly more power than your alternator can handle, but only when the capacitor has around 5-10 farads. Unfortunately the price range for such a capacitor puts it out of the range of consideration because much more viable options are available. A better option instead of investing in a capacitor is to upgrade your main battery. Straight up replace your lead-acid battery with a performance AGM car audio battery. Why would you do that when the alternator does all the work above 12.8 anyway? The high performance battery does not draw as much current as the lead acid does, meaning less strain on the alternator and more power available to your amplifiers. In addition, if/when the voltage drops to 12.8v the high performance battery will supply more current than its Lead acid counterpart. Your new battery will also offer better cold weather performance, will look wicked cool, and will recharge faster. For those who have, or are planning, a really large system, and are planning on spending several hundred on batteries.. consider upgrading your alternator instead/ in addition. You must increase your current generating capabilities in order to power your setup. An alternator also weighs much less than batteries, and doesn’t need to charge. I hope you have learned something from reading this article, please let me know what you think! (PS, i am still figuring things out on SMD forums, If this post belongs somewhere else i would be happy to move it)
  7. hello i have a in home audio setup that involves nothing but car audio and i have some questions since i can not figure it out . about amps ;;;;;;;;; question 1 amps . at the moment i am using a 500w monoblock alpine on a 15'' kicker and a 600 watt xplod 4 channel to power 2 8'' hifoics tritons 300w rms and 2 10'' jl audio 10w3v2 200w rmssubs and tweeters n soo on . the deck is a dual 50w 2 eq setup with subwoofer controls ii also have a 20 eq pre amp between everything to balance bass / voice is this an ok setup for a home setup ? about capacitors / chargers ;;;;;;;;;; my current power supplies are 2 computer power supplies one puts out [email protected] and the other puts out [email protected] and they run to a diode that has 2 inputs 1 output soo they dont cross feed into each other they click off without that diode between them ... and they put out a nasty buzz at times when im playing and the buzz ... not in radio interface noise u dont hear any distortion when the radio plays it comes from the power supplies them selves question 2 are capacitors needed since i dont use car alternators .. i was thinking about making a custom capacitor with over 10k farad basically ima buy a bunch of 2.7vdc 3000 farad capacitors is this ok ? since nothing is generating high amps for what i need ? question 3 power supply im not shure what can put out more then 100 amps without using a car battery charger that is noisy i found http://www.amazon.com/POWERMAX-PM3-100-CONVERTER-CHARGER-AUTOMATIC/dp/B008B13NIQ/ref=sr_1_5?ie=UTF8&qid=1389808889&sr=8-5&keywords=switching+power+supply+12v+80+amp but idk how this will work or if since it is a bettery charger will it be noisy ? and will it put out more then 12v since it is a car battery charger. about box configuration ;;;;;;;; question 4 box size my 15'' kicker single coil cvr 500w rms they dont sell this subwoofer no more but it can play the box it is in is roughly 37 inches tall 17 '' wide and deep . with a port it catches 15 hz and shakes my whole house and is tuned to 15 hz to 103 hz the jl audio10w3v2 subs use a box thats 12 tall 12 wide and 12 deep with a t line port and they catch the higher bass and and are tuned to 40 to 100hz the hifonics 8's are in a 12 by 12 by 12 box sealed with a 90hz bass blocker tuned to 93 hz to 20k hz what ever it catches and i have these television tweeters . nice little speakers they handle everything i throw at it this is alot to take in and might not make since but i tried my best to describe my question
  8. Tony Candela of CE Auto Electric Supply, Juan Rodriguez and I decided to do some testing with the AD-1 Amplifier Dyno to see what effects adding a capacitor to your system does. We did over 60 Dyno pulls with a Rockford T2500-1bdcp, without a capacitor, with a 1 Farad electrolytic capacitor (a real 1 F), and a 100 Farad carbon supercap. Test vehicle is a 2013 Jeep Grand Cherokee, 5.7 Hemi, 180 amp alternator, single group 49 AGM battery, all wiring 1/0 AWG copper. We tested each possible combination 3 times just to make sure our numbers were consistent, which they were. Video part 1 is continuous power testing, video 2 is dynamic burst power testing. Enjoy!!! Video part 1= Continuous power testing (uncertified dyno test mode). We do 4, 2 and 1 ohm dyno runs with no cap, 1 F cap, and 100 F cap. All tests in this video were made using the Uncertified Dyno Mode which is a continuous sine wave. We test a Rockford T2500-1bdcp in car, with no added capacitors, then with a 1 Farad aluminum electrolytic capacitor added, and then with a 100 Farad carbon supercapacitor added. RESULTS: No Capacitor: 1499 Watts RMS @ 13.07V into 4 ohms 2059 Watts RMS @ 11.84V into 2 ohms 2366 Watts RMS @ 10.83V into 1 ohm With 1 Farad Capacitor: 1489 Watts RMS @ 13.10V into 4 ohms 2024 Watts RMS @ 11.90V into 2 ohms 2358 Watts RMS @ 10.87V into 1 ohm With 100 Farad carbon supercapacitor: 1531 Watts RMS @ 13.13V into 4 ohms 2208 Watts RMS @ 12.25V into 2 ohms 2606 Watts RMS @ 11.30V into 1 ohm Engine RPM held between 2200-2500 for all tests. 1F capacitor didn't add any power on the continuous RMS test, actually lost a few watts probably due to the increased number of wire connections. 100F capacitor added more than 10% more power on the continuous RMS test Make sure to watch part 2, dynamic power testing (burst power). Hint: The results are different! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Video part 2= Dynamic burst testing (Dynamic Power Dyno Mode). We do 4, 2 and 1 ohm dyno runs with no cap, 1 F cap, and 100F cap. All tests in this video were made using the Dynamic Power (Burst) Dyno mode which is representative of musical peaks. We test a Rockford T2500-1bdcp in car, with no added capacitors, then with a 1 Farad aluminum electrolytic capacitor added, and then with a 100 Farad carbon supercapacitor added. RESULTS: No Capacitor: 1543 Watts RMS @ 13.80V into 4 ohms 2550 Watts RMS @ 13.32V into 2 ohms 3154 Watts RMS @ 12.76V into 1 ohm With 1 Farad Capacitor: 1613 Watts RMS @ 13.98V into 4 ohms 2666 Watts RMS @ 13.60V into 2 ohms 3426 Watts RMS @ 13.35V into 1 ohm With 100 Farad carbon supercapacitor: 1620 Watts RMS @ 13.95V into 4 ohms 2616 Watts RMS @ 13.65V into 2 ohms 3260 Watts RMS @ 12.91V into 1 ohm Engine RPM held between 2200-2500 for all tests. 1F capacitor didn't add any power on the continuous RMS test, but it OWNED the Dynamic Burst testing!! 100F capacitor added more than 10% more power on the continuous RMS test, but less than 5% on the dynamic burst test.